This wiki is intended to function as a gateway to published research in communication studies, not as an authoritative resource in and of itself. Entries are not peer reviewed, closely monitored by an editor, or otherwise reviewed for clarity and reliability. As a matter of policy, we ask all contributors cite heavily, such that each claim, statement, or qualification is referenced. In this way, users of the site can approach an entry to peer-reviewed published research, rather than a research source in and of itself.

Consequently, this wiki is not an appropriate venue for novel, innovative, experimental, or idiosyncratic ideas and approaches to concepts in communication studies. Rather, it is intended to function in the manner of a compendium of available established knowledge.

Minor Revision: Any grammatical or strictly "editorial" changes; additions of citations/ sources; small additions to the entry;
Moderate Revision: Changes that are substantive in nature, but do not change the overall substance of the entry: noticeable additions, amplifications, re-arrangements, significant cuts (for example, to make the entry more efficient and clear), etc.
Major Revisions: Substantive changes that change the overall substance of the entry.

When you make a revision, please record what type of revision it was, a brief description, your name, and the date at the bottom of the wiki page. When adding a new revision to a page, please do not erase records of previous revisions. This will function as a history of the development of these concepts over time and as a record of site participation.

• APA -- parenthetical followed by bibliography. When directly quoting from a source, use page number in parenthetical citation. For questions on APA citation style, see
• Paragraphs should be kept relatively crisp; avoid long paragraphs.
• Use sub-headings for sub-sections, underlining and bolding sub-headings.
• Link references to other terms/ concepts in the Wiki. You may also link to pages outside of the Wiki according to your discretion. Make sure such external links refer to more or less permanent pages.

For additional help, see the Tips and Tricks page.


No libelous or sexual content; content must be based on a reputable third party source (e.g. journal article, book, or newspaper article) and must be verifiable. All citations must include a date for periodicals like newspapers or magazines, volume and issue numbers for journals, and publication information for books.
Concepts in Communication is not liable for any content that violates copyright.